state of civil and political rights: Not free
legal system: based on english common law and Islamic law; Sultan has power to grant clemency
legislative system: bicameral Majlis Oman consists of an upper chamber (Majlis ad-Dawla) and a lower chamber (Majlis ash-Shura)
judicial system: Supreme Court
religion: Ibadhi Muslim 75%, Sunni Muslim, Shi'a Muslim, Hindu
year of last executions: 0-0-2009
death sentences: 2
international treaties on human rights and the death penalty:
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Statute of the International Criminal Court (which excludes the death penalty) (only signed)
The death penalty is provided for under the penal laws of the Sultanate of Oman, which make reference to Sharia law.
The criminal court in Oman cannot issue a sentence of capital punishment without the consent of all judges presiding the court and the implementation of a death sentence cannot be carried out before ratification by the Sultan.
Execution of pregnant women is delayed till birth. If the child is alive, the execution is delayed for two years for breast-feeding, but if the same child dies, execution is implemented 40 days after the date of death.
Executions cannot take place on public holidays and Eid-ul-Fitr, the festival that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic month of fasting.
In 2015, no death sentences were imposed in Oman, which nevertheless carried out two executions, according to Amnesty International. The last executions had taken place in 2009, when Oman executed four prisoners.
The War on Drugs
On 5 October 2015, Sultan Qaboos Bin Saeed approved amendments to the Combating Narcotics and Psychotropic Drugs law, introducing stiffer penalties, including the death penalty and life sentence, for drug peddlers and smugglers.
Under the amended law, the death penalty or life in prison can be imposed on the following people: drug traffickers; repeat offenders of drug crimes; public servants responsible for combating drug crimes found guilty of drug dealing; persons who use juveniles or orphans to commit drug crimes; persons involved with international drug trafficking gangs, and persons who abuse their power and immunity to commit or facilitate drug crimes.
On December 18, 2016, Oman voted against the Resolution as well as on 18 December 2014 and in 2012. On December 18, 2008 and December 21st, 2010, Oman abstained on the Resolution on a Moratorium on the Use of the Death Penalty at the UN General Assembly.