government: federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy
state of civil and political rights: Free
constitution: 7 February 1831; amended many times; revised 14 July 1993 to create a federal state
legal system: based on civil law system influenced by English constitutional theory
legislative system: bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate and a Chamber of Deputies
judicial system: Supreme Court of Justice ( Hof van Cassatie in Dutch and Cour de Cassation in French), Constitutional Court (Grondwettelijk Hof in Dutch and Cour constitutionelle in French )
religion: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant and other Christian 2.5%, Jewish 2.5%, Muslim 5%
year of last executions: 0-0-0
death sentences: 0
international treaties on human rights and the death penalty:
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
1st Optional Protocol to the Covenant
Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (aiming to the abolition of the death penalty)
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
6th Protocol to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (concerning the abolition of the death penalty)
European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
Protocol No. 13 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, concerning the abolition of the death penalty in all circumstances
Statute of the International Criminal Court (which excludes the death penalty)
Belgium abolished the death penalty for all crimes in 1996.
The last execution was carried out in 1950. On June 23, 2003 Belgium deposited with the Council of Europe the instrument of ratification of Protocol No 13 to the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms banning the death penalty in all circumstances.
On 19 December 2016, as in previous years, Belgium co-sponsored and voted in favour of the Resolution on a Moratorium on the Use of the Death Penalty at the UN General Assembly.
On 29 September 2017, Belgium voted in favor of the resolution on the death penalty (L6/17) at the UN Council on Human Rights.