FINLAND - Abolitionist
State of civil and political rights: Free
Constitution: 1 March 2000
Legal System: civil law system based on Swedish law; the president may request the Supreme Court to review laws
Legislative System: unicameral Parliament (Eduskunta)
Judicial System: Supreme Court (Korkein Oikeus), judges appointed by the president
Religion: Lutheran Church of Finland 84.2%, Orthodox Church 1.1%, other
International Treaties on the Death Penalty and Human Rights:
- International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
- 1st Optional Protocol to the Covenant
- Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (aiming to the abolition of the death penalty)
- Convention on the Rights of the Child
- Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
- European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
- 6th Protocol to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (concerning the abolition of the death penalty)
- European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
- Protocol No. 13 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, concerning the abolition of the death penalty in all circumstances
- Statute of the International Criminal Court (which excludes the death penalty)
Finland abolished the death penalty for ordinary crimes in 1949, and for all crimes in 1972. The Constitution of Finland in Section 6, states: "Everyone shall have the right to life and personal liberty, physical integrity and security of person. No one shall be sentenced to death, tortured or otherwise treated in a degrading manner."
The last execution in Finland was carried out in 1994.
On November 29, 2004, Finland ratified Protocol No 13 to the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms banning the death penalty in all circumstances. It entered into force on March 1, 2005.
On December 19, 2016, as in previous years, Finland co-sponsored and voted in favour of the Resolution on a Moratorium on the Use of the Death Penalty at the UN General Assembly.