executions in the world:

In 2024


2000 to present



  • Abolitionist
  • retentionist
  • De facto abolitionist
  • Moratorium on executions
  • Abolitionist for ordinary crimes
  • Committed to abolishing the death penalty


government: federal parliamentary democracy under a constitutional monarchy
state of civil and political rights: Free
constitution: 7 February 1831; revised 14 July 1993 to create a federal state; amended many times, last in 2019
legal system: civil law system based on the French Civil Code; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
legislative system: bicameral Parliament consists of Senate (Senaat in Dutch, Senat in French) and Chamber of Representatives (Kamer van Volksvertegenwoordigers in Dutch, Chambre des Representants in French)
judicial system: Constitutional Court or Grondwettelijk Hof (in Dutch) and Cour Constitutionelle (in French) (consists of 12 judges - 6 Dutch-speaking and 6 French-speaking); Supreme Court of Justice or Hof van Cassatie (in Dutch) and Cour de Cassation (in French) (court organized into 3 chambers: civil and commercial; criminal; social, fiscal, and armed forces; each chamber includes a Dutch division and a French division, each with a chairperson and 5-6 judges); Courts of Appeal; regional courts; specialized courts for administrative, commercial, labor, immigration, and audit issues; magistrate's courts; justices of the peace
religion: Roman Catholic 57.1%, Protestant 2.3%, other Christian 2.8%, Muslim 6.8%, other 1.7%, atheist 9.1%, nonbeliever/agnostic 20.2% (2018 est.)
death row:
year of last executions: 0-0-0
death sentences: 0
executions: 0
international treaties on human rights and the death penalty: