state of civil and political rights: Partly free
constitution: 23 December 2001
legal system: new code incorporates French and Islamic law
legislative system: unicameral Assembly of the Union
judicial system: Supreme Court, two members are appointed by the president, two members are elected by the Federal Assembly, one by the Council of each island, and former presidents of the republic
religion: Sunni Muslim 98%, Roman Catholic 2%
death row: 7 (as of end 2017, according Amesty International)
year of last executions: 0-0-1997
death sentences: 0
international treaties on human rights and the death penalty:
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (signed only)
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (signed only)
African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights
Statute of the International Criminal Court (which excludes the death penalty)
Aggravated murder, treason and spying are capital crimes.
The legal system incorporates Islamic law as well as French legal codes.
Comoros has endured more than 20 coups, or attempted coups, since gaining independence from France in 1975.
In 2000, the three islands - Moheli, Anjouan and Grande Comore – negotiated the Fomboni Accords, a power-sharing agreement, in which the federal presidency rotates among the three islands and each island maintains its own local government.
On his election in 1996, then president Mohamed Taki Abdoulkarin announced that people found guilty of murder could be condemned to death according to Islamic law.
The first execution since the country became independent in 1975 was carried out on September 18, 1996. Another execution was reported in 1997. There were six death row inamtes in the Moroni prison on 17 November 2014, according to General Prosecutor Mahammoud Soilihi and 7 at the end of 2017 according to Amnesty International.
On 31 January 2014, the Comoros was reviewed under the Universal Periodic Review of the UN Human Rights Council. In its responses to the recommendations received, the Government accepted those to ratify the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at abolishing the death penalty, as a step towards accelerating the approval of the new draft Penal Code and the draft Criminal Procedure Code that would include the abolition of the death penalty. The Comorian delegation said the country had been strengthening its legal arsenal through the submission to Parliament of draft legislation on the reform of the Criminal Code and the Code of Criminal Procedure. The bill on the revision of the Criminal Code provided for the abolition of the death penalty. Comoros informed that the draft Criminal Code had already been adopted by the law commission of the National Assembly, and that the plenary would adopt the law soon.
On December 17, 2018, Comoros abstained on the Resolution on a Moratorium on the Use of the Death Penalty at the UN General Assembly as in 2010, 2012, 2014 and 2016. In 2007 and 2008 Comoros voted against.