executions in the world:

In 2024


2000 to present



  • Abolitionist
  • retentionist
  • De facto abolitionist
  • Moratorium on executions
  • Abolitionist for ordinary crimes
  • Committed to abolishing the death penalty


government: federal parliamentary republic
state of civil and political rights: Free
constitution: 26 January 1950; amended many times, last in 2020
legal system: common law system based on the English model; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; judicial review of legislative acts
legislative system: bicameral Parliament (Sansad) consists of the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the People's Assembly (Lok Sabha)
judicial system: Supreme Court (consists of 28 judges, including the chief justice); High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court
religion: Hindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
death row: 539 (december 2022, Project 39A )
year of last executions: 21-11-2012
death sentences: 38
executions: 0
international treaties on human rights and the death penalty:





Innocent people


Death penalty for terrorism


Commutation of death sentences


Death penalty for violent crimes





Asia, Middle East, Australia and Oceania