government: semi-presidential republic
state of civil and political rights: Free
constitution: 12 February 1992
legal system: blend of Soviet, German, and US systems that combine "continental" or "civil" code and case-precedent
legislative system: unicameral State Great Hural, 76 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms
judicial system: Supreme Court whose judges are nominated nominated by the General Council of Courts and approved by the president
religion: Buddhist Lamaist 50%, Shamanist and Christian 6%, Muslim 4%, none 40%
death row: at least 9 (as of July 30, 2009)
year of last executions: 0-0-0
death sentences: 0
international treaties on human rights and the death penalty:
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
1st Optional Protocol to the Covenant
Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (aiming to the abolition of the death penalty)
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
Statute of the International Criminal Court (which excludes the death penalty)
On 3 December 2015, Mongolia’s parliament voted in favour of a new Criminal Code that abolishes the death penalty for all crimes. The new Criminal Code takes effect from September 2016.
The last execution in Mongolia was in 2008 and the death penalty remained classified as a state secret.
Since then, the country has taken a series of steps towards abolition culminating in the historic parliamentary vote. In 2010, the country’s President, Tsakhia Elbegdorj, commuted all death sentences and announced a moratorium on all executions. In 2012, Mongolia acceded to the Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), committing the country to the abolition of the death penalty.
On 19 December 2016, Mongolia co-sponsored and voted again in favour of the Resolution on a Moratorium on the Use of the Death Penalty at the UN General Assembly.
On 29 September 2017, Mongolia voted again in favour of the Resolution on the Death Penalty at the 36° session of the UN Council on Human Rights.