government: federal democratic republic
state of civil and political rights: Partly free
constitution: 9 November 1990; a new interim constitution was promulgated in January 2007.
in April 2008 a Constituent Assembly was elected to draft and promulgate a new constitution by May 2010
legal system: based on Hindu principles and common law
legislative system: unicameral Constituent Assembly
judicial system: Supreme Court (Sarbochha Adalat), chief justice is appointed by the monarch on recommendation of the Constitutional Council, the other judges are appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the Judicial Council
religion: Hindu 80.6%, Buddhist 10.7%, Muslim 4.2%, Kirant 3.6%, other 0.9%
year of last executions: 0-0-0
death sentences: 0
international treaties on human rights and the death penalty:
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
1st Optional Protocol to the Covenant
Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (aiming to the abolition of the death penalty)
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
The Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal (1990) at Article 12 states: "No law shall be made which provides for capital punishment." The last execution took place in 1979.
The civil war ongoing since 1996 between Maoist rebels and the state – wherein the insurgents want to replace the monarchy with a communist republic – had cost at least 9,500 lives by October 2004. It has escalated into a major human rights crisis with civilians in contested areas ruthlessly abducted and executed by both sides. In 2003 alone 1,600 people, between civilians, rebels and security forces, lost their lives as a result of the conflict.
On December 17, 2018, Nepal voted again in favour of the Resolution on a Moratorium on the Use of the Death Penalty at the UN General Assembly.