government: republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
state of civil and political rights: Not free
constitution: 18 May 1992.
New constitution adopted 26 September 2008
legal system: based on civil law system and Islamic law
legislative system: unicameral parliament consists of National Assembly (Majlis)
judicial system: Supreme Court whose judges are appointed by the president
religion: Muslim 89%, Eastern Orthodox 9%, unknown 2%
year of last executions: 0-0-0
death sentences: 0
international treaties on human rights and the death penalty:
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
1st Optional Protocol to the Covenant
Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (aiming to the abolition of the death penalty)
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
On December 29, 1999, the People's Council decided to abolish the death sentence in the country. The same day, President Saparmurad Niyazov signed a corresponding constitutional law. The longest prison term was set at 25 years. Niyazov told the People's Council that people sentenced for felonies would be kept at special places of confinement. Another constitutional law was passed on the same day, stipulating the granting of pardons to convicts on a specific Muslim holiday every year. Persons pardoned under this law must take an oath on the Koran never to commit crimes against society.
On December 17, 2018, Turkmenistan voted again in favour of the Resolution on a Moratorium on the Use of the Death Penalty at the UN General Assembly, but did not cosponsored as done in 2014.