government: constitutional monarchy
state of civil and political rights: Free
constitution: adopted 1815; amended many times, most recently in 2002
legal system: civil law system incorporating French penal theory; constitution does not permit judicial review of acts of the States General
legislative system: bicameral States General (Staten Generaal) consists of the First Chamber (Eerste Kamer) and the Second Chamber (Tweede Kamer)
judicial system: Supreme Court (Hoge Raad) whose justices are nominated for life by the monarch
religion: Roman Catholic 31%, Dutch Reformed 13%, Calvinist 7%, Muslim 5.5%, other 2.5%, none 41%
year of last executions: 0-0-0
death sentences: 0
international treaties on human rights and the death penalty:
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
1st Optional Protocol to the Covenant
Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (aiming to the abolition of the death penalty)
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
6th Protocol to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (concerning the abolition of the death penalty)
European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
Protocol No. 13 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, concerning the abolition of the death penalty in all circumstances
Statute of the International Criminal Court (which excludes the death penalty)
The Constitution of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (1983) at Art. 114 states: "Capital punishment may not be imposed. "The Netherlands has been abolitionist for ordinary crimes since 1870, and fully abolitionist since 1982. The last execution dates back to 1952.
On 29 September 2017, the Netherlands voted in favor of the resolution on the death penalty (L6/17) at the UN Council on Human Rights.
On December 17, 2018, the Netherlands once again co-sponsored and voted in favour of the Resolution on a Moratorium on the Use of the Death Penalty at the UN General Assembly.