state of civil and political rights: Free
constitution: 8 December 1991; revision effective 29 October 2003
legal system: based on civil law system
legislative system: bicameral Parliament consists of the Senate (Senat) and the Chamber of Deputies (Adunarea Deputatilor)
judicial system: Supreme Court of Justice; Constitutional Court
religion: Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 86.8%, Protestant 7.5%, Roman Catholic 4.7%, other (mostly Muslim) and unspecified 0.9%, none 0.1%
year of last executions: 0-0-0
death sentences: 0
international treaties on human rights and the death penalty:
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
1st Optional Protocol to the Covenant
Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (aiming to the abolition of the death penalty)
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
6th Protocol to the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (concerning the abolition of the death penalty)
European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
Protocol No. 13 to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, concerning the abolition of the death penalty in all circumstances
Statute of the International Criminal Court (which excludes the death penalty)
Romania abolished the death penalty in 1989. The Constitution of Romania (1991) at Art. 22(3) states: "Capital punishment is prohibited."
On April 7, 2003 Romania deposited with the Council of Europe the instrument of ratification of Protocol No 13 to the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms banning the death penalty in all circumstances. The last execution was carried out in 1989.
On December 17, 2018, Romania once again co-sponsored and voted in favour of the Resolution on a Moratorium on the Use of the Death Penalty at the UN General Assembly.