government: presidential republic
state of civil and political rights: Partly free
constitution: 10 August 1998.
New constitution adopted on 20 October 2008
legal system: based on civil law system
legislative system: unicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional)
judicial system: National Court of Justice, Constitutional Court
religion: Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%
year of last executions: 0-0-0
death sentences: 0
international treaties on human rights and the death penalty:
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
1st Optional Protocol to the Covenant
Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (aiming to the abolition of the death penalty)
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
American Convention on Human Rights
Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights to abolish the Death Penalty
Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture
Statute of the International Criminal Court (which excludes the death penalty)
The Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador at Art. 23 states: "The State recognizes and guarantees all people the following: (1) The inviolability of life. There is no death penalty."
A proposal to reintroduce the death penalty in Ecuador was refuted by the legislature in 1994. In fact, a change in the Constitution of Ecuador would be required to reintroduce capital punishment in that country. The country has been abolitionist since 1897. The last execution took place in 1884.
On 29 September 2017, Ecuador voted in favour of the Resolution on the Death Penalty at the 36° session of the UN Council on Human Rights.
On December 17, 2018, Ecuador co-sponsored and voted again in favour of the Resolution on a Moratorium on the Use of the Death Penalty at the UN General Assembly.