government: constitutional democracy
state of civil and political rights: Free
constitution: 11 October 1972; major reforms adopted 1978, 1983, 1994, and 2004
legal system: based on civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court of Justice; five superior courts; three courts of appeal
legislative system: Unicameral Legislative Assembly
judicial system: Supreme Court of Justice
religion: 85% Catholic; 15% Protestant
year of last executions: 0-0-0
death sentences: 0
international treaties on human rights and the death penalty:
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
1st Optional Protocol to the Covenant
Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (aiming to the abolition of the death penalty)
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
American Convention on Human Rights
Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights to abolish the Death Penalty
Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture
Statute of the International Criminal Court (which excludes the death penalty)
The Constitution of the Republic of Panama (1972) at Art. 3 states: "There is no death penalty." The last execution was in 1903. The maximum sentence is 20 years' imprisonment. In 2004, a legislative proposal by the president to raise the penalty for murder to life imprisonment was rejected.
On 29 September 2017, Panama voted again in favour of the Resolution on the Death Penalty at the 36° session of the UN Council on Human Rights.
On December 17, 2018, Panama co-sponsored and voted again in favour of the Resolution on a Moratorium on the Use of the Death Penalty at the UN General Assembly.